The Balkans region is an interesting and attractive area for research on its own right. However, understanding the formation of Hungarian flora and fauna is impossible without first understanding that of the Balkans. Hungarian naturalists and scientists have been working in the Balkans for centuries. From 1990 onward, a new generation of scientists brought about a novel quality regarding the collaboration of local and Hungarian biologist with modern methodologies, attitudes and opportunities. The researchers of the Hungarian Natural History Museum have led or participated in more than 300 expeditions to the Balkans Region during the past 3 decades. It is imperative that the expedition participants along with local experts work together towards the exploration of the biodiversity of the region, and raise awareness about it by means of joint conservation and research programmes, by sharing know how,
equipment and social capital. Presently, the exploration of the Balkans is one of the most important long-term projects of the HNHM.